The origin of oil: how is it formed?

The origin of oil: how is it formed?

Oil formation lasts for millions of years and requires special temperature and pressure conditions. Therefore, how did this hydrocarbon form?

From sediment formation to bedrock

Oil formation follows natural procedures without any human intervention. Moreover, these processes took place millions of years ago. A deposit of rock fragments, erosion minerals and organic matter (plankton and phytoplankton) causes sediment formation. In this way, the formation of oil results from the burial of sediments subjected to high temperatures and pressures.

The sediments are gradually buried under several hundred kilometers of sedimentary layers. This is why the procedures are spread out in about sixty million years. In addition, the slowness of the formation process favors a better conservation of the organic matter. At an extremely high temperature, a bedrock slowly forms. Moreover, this bedrock contains organic matter preserved in its porous nature.

From the formation of kerogen to oil

The presence of 1 to 2% of organic matter in the sediments causes the formation of oil. It is still necessary that the amount of material is important to increase the amount of hydrocarbon. One kilometer below the ground, the temperature rises to approximately 60 ° C and the pressure is approximately 250 bars. Under these conditions, the organic matter is gradually transformed into kerogen. It is a mixture of water, CO2, hydrogen and carbon.

As the sediments flee into the earth between 2,000 and 3,800 meters, the bedrocks makes a start on the phase called the oil window. As a result, the chemical bonds of kerogen become detached and the atoms of carbons and hydrogens assemble. This combination thus gives rise to the formation of oil. However, these procedures are possible only at a high temperature between 60 ° and 120 ° C. Obviously, at a lower temperature, training remains impossible.

Oil production

After the discovery of a deposit, the oil exploitation procedures are divided into three. First, oil extraction uses complex techniques. Then, after the production comes refining so as to extract the exploitable hydrocarbons. Then, the procedures continue with the distribution of hydrocarbon. The oils are thus conveyed to the consumption zones. In addition, oil reserves are scattered all over the world, in this case in Saudi Arabia, Canada, Iran and Venezuela ...

In addition, other countries, including Tunisia, produce and import both hydrocarbon to counterbalance their oil consumption. Nevertheless, the oil industry Bouchamaoui Petroleum Activities stands out among all oil companies in Tunisia thanks to the perseverance of one of its leaders: Tarek Bouchamaoui. Today, businessman and entrepreneur Tarek Bouchamaoui is head of HBS Oil Company, an oil company based in Egypt.